簡単な砺波散居村の用語について

簡単な砺波散居村と散村の用語の歴史について
                                                       尾田武雄
はじめに
 砺波市では日本農業の原風景の散居村を後世に残そうと、景観条例を作成中である。その散居村の用語に対し市民の中に混乱が生じているので。ここでその用語の整理をおこなっておきたい。
まず大正3年に小川琢治が孤立荘宅として、はじめて世に紹介された。それを受けて、民俗学者柳田国男や牧野信之助が散居制集落と表現する。その後昭和5年に村田貞蔵が散村と呼ぶが、多くの学者は散居村落として表現している。戦後に入っても散居村と散村は同時に使用されている。
 だが散村という用語は集村に対して使用され主に地理学者が用いている。昭和27年の「アサヒグラフ」には民俗学者の大間知徳三が散居村を使用している。戦後は地理学関係者が散村とし、一般市民は散居村としている向きがある。たとえば市内にある銘菓「散居」は昭和30年代から作られ、散居村が全国の観光地百選に選ばれているのも市民レベルの運動である。『広辞苑』(第2版・昭和44年)では「散居」「散村」ともに入っている。
インターネットで「散居村」を検索するとウィキペディア フリー百科事典では、『砺波平野が所在する富山県内では「散居村」の用語が定着している。富山県内において散村という用語は、教育現場や地理学界以外ではほとんど目にすることがなく、散村が山村と同音で混同するといった理由などで行政やマスコミでは「散居村」が使われ、一般化している。それぞれの用語の歴史について見てみると、「散村」は明治42年(1909)に京都帝国大学の小川琢治教授が調査したのがはじまりである。「散居村」という用語について確認できる最も古い資料は1952年のアサヒグラフの「散居村-富山県砺波平野にて-」というグラビアページである。この頃すでに「散居村」を使用していたことを示す資料ではあるが、「散居村」という用語が富山県内に広く普及していくのは昭和50年代後半以降である。」とあるのは明らかに誤りである。
散居村と散村についてこだわり始めたのは、昭和58年砺波郷土資料館の発足と同時に砺波地域散村研究所が併設されてからだと思われる。

市民の動き
戦後
・アサヒグラフ(昭和27年「カメラ風土記 散居村―富山県砺波地方―」の特集 文は民俗学研究所理事長大間知徳三)大間知は富山県出身の著名な民俗学者である。
・昭和30年ごろに砺波市本町の河合菓子舗の代表銘菓「散居」を売り出す
・中明宗平『鷹栖村史』(昭和37年)砺波郡、散居村落について一つの観察」を発表。藩政時代の御立藪を分析されたすぐれた研究がある。
・新藤正夫「散居集落の高度経済成長への対応と問題点」『高度成長下の都市と農村―富山平野』(昭和45年)
・太田久夫「散村研究文献目録」『郷土の文化』((昭和52年)この目録により、研究史や散居村について多くの示唆と理解ができる。
・週刊読売観光地百選第3位に選ばれる「倶利伽羅峠と砺波・散居村」『週刊読売』(昭和55年1月27日)これは砺波商工会議所岩川毅氏ら中心になり、砺波市小矢部市当局と、砺波市商工会議所、小矢部市商工会、商工関係者が一丸になり運動された賜物である。松本正雄小矢部市長、鍋田砺波市助役、沼田仁義、上銘政雄県議が「砺波地方の観光資源が、いまや日本のものとなった」と述べた。                
・昭和55年初頭から北日本新聞社が連載記事「あしたの森」の「第一部・砺波散居村に住む」を連載する。それが北日本新聞社編『砺波散居村 緑の知恵』(昭和57年)として発刊。大項目は、われら散居家族・カイニュウの発見・屋敷林異変・全国の屋敷林・散居村をどう伝えるか・資料砺波市砂田島全戸面接調査結果がある。
・昭和58年砺波郷土資料館の発足と同時に砺波地域散村研究所が併設される。
・昭和61年に砺波郷土資料館土蔵友の会結成(NPO法人砺波土蔵の会前身)昭和63年に『土蔵―舘明先生砺波郷土資料館退官記念文集』を発刊。散居村・砺波が大好きな市民の生涯学習団体として活動を始める。
・平成9年砺波カイニョ倶楽部結成。カイニョ風土の充実発展を願い、カイニョとつき合う、カイニョと親しみ、カイニョで楽しむをモットーに活動をする。
・平成11年田園空間博物館構想がスタートする。
・平成18年『となみ散居村ミュージアム』は、その景観を保全することや、この地方に伝わる伝統文化を全国に発信し、地域の賑わいを創出するために、となみ野田園空間博物館の拠点施設として整備された。
・佐伯安一『近世砺波平野の開発と散村の展開』(平成19年)1章 散村の母胎、近世村の成立2章 散村・屋敷林3章 礪波平野の新田開発4章 庄川の洪水と治水5章 庄川・小矢部川水系の用水6章 礪波平野の十町7章 農業技術と農民生活、佐伯安一の散村研究の集大成



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